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Standard Matrix – Basic Principles of Selected Standards for Fruit and Vegetable Production



integrated farm assurance standard


Code of good agricultural practices (GAP) for fruits and vegetable farming

FairTrade Standard for Small Producer Organizations

IFOAM standard for organic production

Basic Information


Background (Initiative/Founder, History, Development, etc.)

• GLOBALG.A.P. is a private sector body (FoodPLUS GmbH, Cologne/Germany) of voluntary members that sets voluntary standards for the certification of agricultural products around the globe. The aim is to establish one universal standard for Good Agricultural Practice (G.A.P.) with different product applications capable of fitting to the whole of global agriculture. It is being applied by companies in more than 100 countries worldwide in the meanwhile.

• The GLOBALG.A.P. Standard was founded as EUREPGAP in 1997 by the Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group

(EUREP) of different European food wholesales chains. The first certificate was issued in 2001. Due to rising

internationalization of members and market, a re-branding led to the name GLOBALG.A.P in 2007. Until

2011, the number of certified producers had raised to 100.000 in 100 countries.

•  The focus of GLOBALGAP is on food safety and traceability, although it also includes some requirements on worker safety, health and welfare, and conservation of environment. GLOBALGAP is a prefarmgate standard, which means that the certificate covers the process of the certified product from before the seed is planted until it leaves the farm. It should be borne in mind that GLOBALGAP is a purely private standard.

• GLOBALGAP has so far developed GAP standards for fruits and vegetables, combinable crops, flowers and ornamental plants, green coffee, tea, pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep, dairy and aquaculture (salmon). Other product scopes are under development (check their Web site).

• The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS) under the Department of Agriculture was established in December 1997.  

• BAFPS’ major duties include to:

- Formulate and enforce standards of quality in the processing, preservation, packaging, labeling, importation, exportation, distribution, and advertising of agricultural and fisheries products;

- Conduct research on product standardization, alignment of the local standards with the international standards, and;

- Conduct regular inspection of processing plants, storage facilities, abattoirs, as well as public and private markets in order to ensure freshness, safety and quality of products.

• In 2006, the ASEAN Member Countries prepared and adopted a set of voluntary standards

for good agricultural practices which will be applied during the production, harvesting and

postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables. This set of standards were developed

based on the criteria, specific situations and experiences of implementing national Good

Agricultural Practices (GAP) programs in Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

Moreover, it drew from certified GAP systems and guidelines from other countries and


• The practices in the PhilGAP are aimed towards prevention and minimization of

risk occurrences which include those of food safety, environmental impact, worker health,

safety and welfare, and product quality. It is envisioned that compliance of farmers with this

set of practices will empower them towards reducing the impact of global challenges, like the

demand for food safety.

• Fair trade is an alternative approach to conventional trade based on a partnership between producers and traders, businesses and consumers. The international Fairtrade system - made up of Fairtrade International and its member organizations - represents the world's largest and most recognized fair trade system.

•  Fairtrade offers producers a better deal and improved terms of trade. This allows them the opportunity to improve their lives and plan for their future. Fairtrade offers consumers a powerful way to reduce poverty through their every day shopping. When a product carries the FAIRTRADE Mark it means the producers and traders have met Fairtrade Standards. The Standards are designed to address the imbalance of power in trading relationships, unstable markets and the injustices of conventional trade.

• There are two distinct sets of Fairtrade Standards, which acknowledge different types of disadvantaged producers. One set of standards applies to smallholders that are working together in co-operatives or other organizations with a democratic structure. The other set applies to workers, whose employers pay decent wages, guarantee the right to join trade unions, ensure health and safety standards and provide adequate housing where relevant.

•  Fairtrade Standards also cover terms of trade. Most products have a Fairtrade Price, which is the minimum that must be paid to the producers. In addition producers get an additional sum, the Fairtrade Premium, to invest in their communities.


- In 1988 : Launch of the first Fairtrade label, Max Havelaar, under the initiative of the Dutch development agency Solidaridad.

- Late ‘80s/early ‘90s: The Max Havelaar initiative is replicated in several other markets across Europe and North America: Max Havelaar (in Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway and France), Transfair (in Germany, Austria, Luxemburg, Italy, the United States, Canada and Japan), Fairtrade Mark in the UK and Ireland, Rättvisemärkt in Sweden, and Reilu Kauppa in Finland.

- 1997: Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) was established in Bonn, Germany to unite the labelling initiatives under one umbrella and harmonize worldwide standards and certification.

- 2004: Fairtrade International splits into two independent organizations: FLO, which sets Fairtrade standards and provides producer support, and FLO-CERT, which inspects and certifies producer organizations and audits traders.

• The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) represents the organic movement in its full diversity and is dedicated to taking organic agriculture to the mainstream.

• With offices around the world and a crossesction of sector platforms, IFOAM ensures that the organic voice is heard on both a regional and global level. In additon to offering a range of membership services, IFOAM also implements organic programs, provide leadership training, and support standard and verifcation systems.

The IFOAM stategy:

- IFOAM holds a unique position as the international umbrella organization of the organic world, uniting stakeholders from every facet of the sector to create a common voice on organic issues.

- Vision: Worldwide adoption of ecologically, socially and economically sound systems that are based on the principles of Organic Agriculture

- Mission: Lead, unite and assist the organic movement in its full diversity.

• Among its wide range of activities, IFOAM maintains an organic farming standard, and an organic accreditation and certification service.


• The humble beginnings of IFOAM trace back to a meeting in Versailles, France on November 5, 1972.

• Now over forty years later, IFOAM has evolved into a global association with about 800 affiliates in 120 countries

• Today, the  IFOAM head office is situated  in Bonn, Germany


• GLOBALG.A.P. is a pre-farm-gate standard, which means that the certificate covers the process of the certified product from farm inputs like feed or seedlings and all the farming activities until the product leaves the farm. GLOBALG.A.P. is a business-to-business label and is therefore not directly visible to consumers.

• There are different types of memberships including retail and food service members, producers / suppliers

and associate members from the input and service side of agriculture. The product base ranges from crops

to livestock and aquaculture to compound feed and plant propagation material.

• This standard code of practice covers the general hygienic practices for the

production and primary processing of fresh fruits and vegetables cultivated for

human consumption, particularly those intended to be consumed raw. Specifically,

this code is applicable to fresh fruits and vegetables that are field-grown with or

without cover, or those grown under protected facilities such as hydroponic systems

or greenhouses.

• Small producer organizations

• Hired labour

• Contract Production

• The IFOAM Standard (IS) is an internationally applicable organic standard developed by IFOAM.

• The IFOAM Standard is an off-the-shelf standard which can be used by those wanting to outsource standard setting and maintenance and see the benefits of sharing the work with others and creating synergies on an international level.

• The IFOAM Standard is written in such a way that it may be used in the context of third party certification, Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS), Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), or simply self-commitment by producers wishing to follow the standard.

Main requirements

• The GLOBALGAP standard requires that producers establish a complete control and monitoring system. Products are registered and can be traced back to the specific farm unit where they were grown. GLOBALGAP rules are relatively flexible about field practices such as soil fumigation and fertilizer usage. There are strict regulations about pesticide storage and pesticide residue limits. In addition, it is important to record and justify how the product was produced, so detailed records must be kept about farm practices.

• Assessment of the farm will be against the minimum requirements set in the four (4) modules of the standard: food safety; produce quality; workers, health, safety and welfare; and environmental management.  

• To obtain certification, producer associations must function in a democratic manner. There are also rules on how the fair-trade premium has to be spent and requirements for the protection of the environment.

• For plantations, there are a number of requirements related to labour rights: workers' treatment, freedom of association and collective bargaining, workers' housing and sanitation; workers' health and safety; and no child or forced labour. In addition, the producer must comply with the environmental and social laws in the producing country and demonstrate continual improvement in annual inspections (audits).

• The IFOAM Standard covers the areas of general organic management, crop production (including plant breeding), animal production (including beekeeping), aquaculture, wild collection, processing and handling, labeling, and social justice.

• There are specific requirements for most organically certified crops as well as livestock, fish farming, bee keeping, forestry and the harvesting of wild products. Organic standards require that there is a conversion period (or time that a farm has to use organic production methods before it can be certified, usually 2 - 3 years)


•  GLOBALG.A.P. certification is carried out by more than 100 independent and accredited certification bodies in more than 100 countries. It is open to all producers worldwide. GLOBALG.A.P. includes annual inspections of the producers and additional unannounced inspections.

•  GLOBALGAP does not issue the certificates itself but has authorized registered certification bodies to do this. Firstly, it is recommended to read the GLOBALGAP general regulations and control points of the respective product scope before contacting a certification body which will accomplish the certification procedure. Farmers who want to get certified to GLOBALGAP have to take certain costs into account. Generally they have to pay for registration, inspection and certification.

• Both individual producers and groups of producers can apply for certification, the cost of which depends on the certification agency chosen and the time spent on the inspection.

In addition to the certification fee charged by the certification agency, the producer must also pay an annual producer registration fee to maintain the certification.

• Following types of entities engaged in the production of agricultural crops can be covered:

(a) individuals;

(b) partnership/joint ventures;

(c) cooperatives;

(d) corporations;

(e) associations/organizations and

(f) demonstration farms.

• Agricultural crops are covered,  including cultivated plants of which products are harvested at some point in their growth stage intended for human consumption

• PHILGAP is a government certification program. Thus, is subsidized by the government. No apploication fee, no inspection or certification fee, no renewal fee

• The Fairtrade certification system is run by a separate company called FLO-CERT. By checking compliance with Fairtrade Standards, FLO-CERT ensures that relevant social and environmental standards are met and that producers receive the Fairtrade Minimum Price and Premium.

• FLO-CERT auditors are highly qualified, usually based in the countries and regions where they work, and familiar with local cultures, languages, and legal systems. All auditors are examined on their skills and receive annual training.

• The IFOAM Standards and the IFOAM Accreditation Requirements (IAR) are used by the International Organic Accreditation Service (IOAS) in the IFOAM accreditation process for organic certification bodies. The IOAS evaluates the standards (used by the certifier) against the IFOAM Standard and certification body performance against the IFOAM Accreditation Requirements.

• All the requirements of the IFOAM Standard relevant to the certified farming or processing operations must be implemented by certification bodies in order to become IFOAM Accredited Certification Bodies (ACBs). In other words, certification bodies wishing to be IFOAM accredited must use either the IFOAM Standard itself, or a standard compliant with the IFOAM Standard.

• Certfication of producers worldwide by private certification bodies

Main Opportunities and Constraints

• To get the GLOBALGAP certification, the producer, or group of producers, needs a complete administrative system to keep track of all farm activities.This requires a sufficient administrative and financial capacity; consequently it is easier for large-scale producers to meet the requirements.

• The GLOBALGAP-certified producer may also have an advantage when selling products to retailers that require GLOBALGAP certification.

• There is no special price premium or product label associated with GLOBALGAP, as it is a minimum standard focused on business-to-business relations.

• Once the producer, farm, producer groupos are certified, that might improve the market to be reached as well as the income.

• A producer association or a plantation can benefit from fair-trade certification since certified products normally receive higher and more stable prices. The price paid to producers is determined by production costs. It takes into consideration any additional costs that might arise from meeting the fair-trade requirements, such as providing living wages for workers. In general, the fair trade premium is meant to provide some resources to the community to improve the living conditions of its members.

• A key constraint in the fair trade system is that a group of producers can only get certified if FLO finds that there is a market for their fair-trade-labelled products. In order to enter the fair-trade system, a necessary first step is to ask FLO and other fair-trade importers for information regarding market opportunities for their products. Another constraint is that when a producer association or a plantation has been certified there is no guarantee that the whole production will be sold and marketed as "fair-trade".

• Once the farm is certified, selling organic products might improve the quality of life and income of producers.

Interfaces with other standards

• A range of requirements are defined in accordance to HACCP principles.

• Related to other GAP Standards, in particular of ASEAN Region countries

• Connection to the ILO- Core Conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO)

• Several other organic standards e.g. Naturland, Bioland

Basic Principles and Basic Control Points/Requirements

All Farm Base

Control points in this module are applicable to all producers seeking certification as it covers issues relevant to all farming businesses.


Site History and Site Management

Basic Principles

•   One of the key features of sustainable farming is the continuous integration of site-specific knowledge and practical experiences into future management planning and practices. This section is intended to ensure that the land, buildings and other facilities, which constitute the fabric of the farm, are properly managed to ensure the safe production of food and protection of the environment.

Basic Control Points

•   Site History  

•   Site Management

Basic Control Points

• Suitability of the agricultural site for food production and primary processing

• Production site and property map


Basic Principles

• Organic production systems require an ongoing commitment to organic production practices.

• Maintenance of Organic Management

• A conversion period enables the establishment of an organic management system and builds soil health and fertility

Basic Control Points

• The length of the conversion period shall be at least:

- 12 months before sowing or planting in the case of annual production

- 12 months before grazing or harvest for pastures and meadows

- 18 months before harvest for other perennials.

• All the requirements of the standard shall be met for the duration of the conversion period

Record keeping and internal Self-assessment/internal inspection

Basic Principles

• Important details of farming practices should be recorded and records kept.

Basic Control Points

• Records for the external control are stored for at least 2 yeras

• Dokumented evidence about the internal self-assessment

• Implementation of corrective actions of non-conformance detected during the self-assessment

Basic Control Points

• Keeping records about the application of fertilizers and plant protection products

• Documented annual internal self-Inspection

Basic Principles

• The requirements in this Standard apply to small producers that are part of organizations with formalized structures of management. The requirements acknowledge these internal structures and expect  to find the best means to guarantee the members’ continuous compliance. For this reason, this Standard does not require a formal internal quality management system. However, the requirements support the monitoring of members’ compliance with the Fairtrade requirements on production.

Basic Control Points

• Members of the small producer organization must be informed about the Fairtrade standards for environmental practices and labour practices

• General risks of not complying the production standards must be identified and documented

• A procedure to monitor the performance of members in relation to production standards must be in place


Waste and Pollution Management, Recycling and Re-Use

Basic Principles

• Waste minimization should include: review of current practices, avoidance of waste, reduction of waste, re-use of waste, and recycling of waste.

Basic Control Points

• Identification of Waste and Pollutants

• Waste and Pollution Action Plan

Basic Control Points

• Waste management plan and energy efficiency

Basic Principles

• Reducing, reusing, handling and recycling waste in a manner that is appropriate to the respective materials reduces risks from hazardous waste and leads to an improved environment and work place

•   Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change. It also has the potential to reduce climate change by reducing emissions, increasing carbon sinks, enhancing biodiversity and maintaining natural habitats. Strengthening the sustainability of local production systems by lowering dependencies on external inputs may be an important way of adapting to climate change.

Basic Control Points

• Treatment of hazardous waste

• Designated areas for the storage and disposal of hazardous waste

• Records about energy consumption in central processing facilities

•   Practices to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions


Environment and Conservation; Biodiversity and Ecosystems

Basic Principles

• Farming and environment are inseparably linked. Managing wildlife and landscape is of great importance; enhancement of species as well as structural diversity of land and landscape features will benefit from the abundance and diversity of flora and fauna.

Basic Control Points

• Impact of Farming on the Environment and Biodiversity

• Unproductive Sites

• Energy efficiency

Basic Control Points

• Environmental safety application of plant protection products

Basic Principles

• This section intends to ensure that the members of the small producer organization have agricultural and environmental practices that are sustainable and minimize risks and that biodiversity is protected and enhanced.

•   Biodiversity supports natural ecosystems. The loss of natural ecosystems is a threat to the sustainability of the production system because the benefits they provide can be lost. These benefits include enhanced water conservation, soil fertility, potential alternative crops, hosting of natural enemies, and a reserve of products important to local communities. Natural ecosystems also provide a buffer to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change.

Basic Control Points

• Environmental management: coordinated action and capacity building among the members to achieve the goal of a sustainable production system

• Avoidance of negative impacts on protected areas and in areas with high conservation value

• Maintation of buffer zones

Basic Principles

• Organic farming benefits the quality of ecosystems.

Basic Control Points

• Ecosystem Management

• Implementation of measures to maintain and improve landscape and enhance biodiversity quality,

• Prohibition of clearing or destruction of High Conservation Value Areas

Crops Base (Crop Production)


The production chapter outlines the ethical and sustainable production practices that are behind every Fairtrade product.



Basic Principles

• Traceability facilitates the recall/withdrawal of foods and enables customers to be provided with targeted and accurate information concerning implicated products.

Basic Control Points

• Documented identification and traceability system for the product produced according to the GLOBAL G.A.P. Standard

Basic Control Points

• Records of production, processing and distribution should be maintained for two (2) years

Basic Control Points

• Fairtrade products sold must be from members of the small producer organization

• Fairtrade sales/products must be separated from the products that were produced from non-members

• Documentation of the product flow from members to the first buyer

• Record keeping and documentation about all the Fairtrade sales

• If a Fairtrade product is sold, it  must be marked  clearly so that it can be identified as Fairtrade

Basic Principles

Organic processing and handling provides consumers with nutritious, high quality supplies of organic products and organic farmers with a market without compromise to the organic integrity of their products.

Basic Control Points

• Handlers and processors shall not co-mingle organic products with nonorganic products.

• Handlers and processers shall ensure traceability in the organic processing and handling chain.

• All organic products shall be clearly identified as such and processed, stored and transported in a way that prevents substitution by or contact with conventional products through the entire process.

• Inputs, processing aids and ingredients shall be traced back one step in the biological chain to the direct source organism from which they are produced to verify that they are not derived from GMOs.

• If the whole farm is not converted (split production) the organic and conventional parts of the farm shall be clearly and continuously separated.

Propagation Material; Choice of Crops and Varieties

Basic Principles

• The choice of propagation material plays an important role in the production process and, by using the appropriate varieties, can help to reduce the number of fertilizer and plant protection product applications. The choice of propagation material is a precondition of good plant growth and product quality.

Basic Control Points

• Quality and Health

• Chemical Treatment and Dressings

• Genetically Modified Organisms

Basic Control Points

• Selection of planting materials considers soil and site suitability/compatibility

• Source of planting material, the necessary seed treatments and related


Basic Principles

• Genetically Modified (GM) crops do not contribute to sustainability in the long run. GM crops increase dependencies on external inputs and discourage an integrated approach in the production system thus inhibiting resiliency. GM crops may also have potential negative impacts on human health and to the environment.

Basic Control Points

• Not intentionally use genetically engineered seed or planting stock for Fairtrade crop(s)

•   Implementation of practices to avoid GM contamination in seed stocks


Basic Principles

• Species and varieties cultivated in organic agriculture systems are selected for adaptability to the local soil and climatic conditions and tolerance to pests and diseases. All seeds and plant material are organic.

• Organic plant breeding and variety development is sustainable, enhances genetic diversity and relies on natural reproductive ability. Organic breeding is always creative, cooperative and open for science, intuition, and new findings. Organic plant breeding is a holistic approach that respects natural crossing barriers. Organic plant breeding is based on fertile plants that can establish a viable relationship with the living soil. Organic varieties are obtained by an organic plant breeding program.

Basic Control Points

• The deliberate use or negligent introduction of genetically engineered organisms or their derivatives is prohibited.

• Use of organically produced seed and planting material whenever available

• Seeds and plant materials shall be propagated under organic management

Soil management

Basic Principles

• Soil is the basis of all agricultural production; the conservation and improvement of this valuable resource is essential. Good soil husbandry ensures long-term fertility of soil, aids yield and contributes to profitability.

Basic Control Points

• Application of suitable techniques  for use on the land

• Control practices and remedial measures to minimize soil erosion

Basic Control Points

•   Recommended soil conservation measures

• Use of soil fumigants to sterilize the soil

Basic Principles

• Soil and water are non renewable resources. Fertile soils and clean and available water are important for the sustainability of the production system.

Basic Control Points

• Identification of land at risk of soil erosion and land that is already eroded in fields where your members plant Fairtrade crops

• Provision of training on practices that reduce and/or prevent soil erosion

Basic Principles

• Organic farming methods conserve and improve the soil, maintain water quality and use water efficiently and responsibly.

• The development of living soils is the foundation of organic production. Soil health and quality are the basis of soil management practices and are critical to successful pest, disease and weed management. Organic growing systems are soil based, care for the soil and surrounding ecosystems, provide support for a diversity of species, are based on nutrient recycling and mitigate soil and nutrient losses.

Basic Control Points

• Appropriate measures to prevent erosion and minimize loss of topsoil

• Prohibition of land preparation by burning vegetation or crop residues

• Return of return nutrients, organic matter and other resources removed from the soil through harvesting by the recycling, regeneration and addition of organic materials and nutrients.

• Crop rotations for annual crops shall be established, to manage pressure from pests, weeds and diseases and to maintain soil fertility

• For orchards and plantations, there shall be managed floor cover and diversity or refuge plantings.

Fertilizer application

Basic Principles

• The decision making process involves crop demands; the supply must be in the soil and available nutrients from farm manure and crop residues. Correct application to optimize use and storage procedures to avoid loss and contamination must be followed.

Basic Control Points

• Nutrient Requirement

• Advice on Quantity and Type of Fertilizer

• Records of Application

• Fertilizer Storage

• Organic Fertilizer

• Nutrient Content

Basic Control Points

• Fertilizers and soil additives

•   Nutrient requirement and minimization of nutrient losses

•   Organic fertilizer

•   Prohibition of using human sewage

•   Storage facility and management

•   Disposal of left-over fertilizers, used nutrient solutions and containers

•   Record keeping

Basic Control Points

• Handling fertilizers

- Provision of training on fertilizer use, application and storage

• Report and documentation on measures that have been implemented to improve soil fertility.

Basic Principles

• Organic farming returns microbial, plant or animal material to the soil to increase or at least maintain its fertility and biological activity.

Basic Control Points

• Soil organic matter, microbial activity and general soil health and fertility shall be improved if low and maintained or improved if satisfactory

•   Nutrients and fertility products shall be applied in a way that does not harm soil, water, and biodiversity.

• Human excrement shall be handled in a way that reduces risk of pathogens and parasites

• Mineral fertilizers shall only be used in a fertility  program addressing long-term fertility needs together with other techniques such as organic matter additions, green manures, crop rotations and nitrogen fixation by plants.

• Chilean nitrate and all synthetic fertilizers, including urea, are prohibited.

Water; Irrigation/Fertigation

Basic Principles

• Water is a scarce natural resource and irrigation should be triggered by appropriate forecasting and/or by technical equipment allowing for efficient use of irrigation water.

Basic Control Points

• Predicting Irrigation Requirements

• Irrigation/Fertigation Method

• Quality of Irrigation Water

• Supply of Irrigation/Fertigation Water

Basic Control Points

• Source of irrigation water

• Suitability of water quality for agricultural production

•   Quality of water used for fertilizer and pesticide application

•   Efficiency use and management of water

•   No use of untreated sewage water

Basic Principles

• Soil and water are non renewable resources. Fertile soils and clean and available water are important for the sustainability of the production system.

Basic Control Points

• List of sources of water used for irrigating and processing Fairtrade crops

• Keep informed about the situation of the water sources in your area

• Sustainable water use

- Provision of training to the members of the  organization on measures to use water efficiently

Basic Principles

• Organic farming methods conserve and improve the soil, maintain water quality and use water efficiently and responsibly.

Basic Control Points

• Operators shall not deplete nor excessively exploit water resources, and shall seek to preserve water quality. They shall where possible recycle rainwater and monitor water extraction.

• Prevention for water salinization

(Integrated) Pest management

Basic Principles

• Integrated Pest Management (IPM) involves the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and the subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations, and keeps plant protection products and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. An IPM Toolbox has been elaborated to provide alternative actions for the application of IPM techniques in the commercial production of agricultural and horticultural crops. Given the natural variation on pest development for the different crops and areas, any IPM system must be implemented in the context of local physical (climatic, topographical etc.), biological (pest complex, natural enemy complex, etc.) and economical conditions.

Basic Control Points

• Can the producer show evidence of implementation of at least one activity that falls in the category of:

- Prevention

- Observation and Monitoring

- Intervention

Basic Control Points

• The Integrated Pesticide Management (IPM) principles and techniques should be used whenever possible to minimize the use of pesticides. A rotation strategy for chemical application and other crop protection measures must be employed to avoid the development of pest resistance.

Basic Principles

• This section intends to minimize risks from handling pesticides, promote the use of integrated pest management tools, and aims at reducing the amounts of pesticides used as much as possible. When pesticide use is necessary, the members the organization are encouraged to use pesticides that are the least toxic as economically and technically feasible.

Basic Control Points

• Integrated pest management (IPM)

- Provision of training to members about IPM, including: the monitoring of pests and diseases; alternative ways to   control pests and diseases; preventive measures against pests and diseases; measures to avoid that pests and diseases build up resistance to pesticides

Basic Principles

• Organic farming systems apply biological and cultural means to prevent unacceptable losses from pests, diseases and weeds. They use crops and varieties that are well-adapted to the environment and a balanced fertility program to maintain fertile soils with high biological activity, locally adapted rotations, companion planting, green manures, and other recognized organic practices as described in this standard.

Basic Control Points

• Crop rotations for annual crops shall be established, to manage pressure from pests, weeds and diseases and to maintain soil fertility

• The organic production system shall include positive processes/mechanisms to manage pests, weeds and diseases. These include:

a. choice of appropriate species and varieties;

b. appropriate rotation programs, intercropping and companion


c. mechanical cultivation;

d. protection of natural enemies of pests through provision of favorable habitat, such as hedges, nesting sites and ecological buffer zones that maintain the original vegetation to house pest predators;

e. natural enemies including release of predators and parasites;

f. mulching and mowing;

g. grazing by animals;

h. mechanical controls such as traps, barriers, light and sound.

Plant Protection products

Basic Principles

• In situations where pest attack will adversely affect the economic value of a crop, it may be necessary to intervene with specific pest control methods, including plant protection products (PPP). The correct use, handling and storage of plant protection products are essential.

Basic Control Points

• Choice of Plant Protection Products

• Advice on Quantity and Type of Plant Protection Production

• Records of Application

• Pre-Harvest Interval

• Disposal of Surplus Application Mix

• Plant Protection Product Residue Analysis

• Plant Protection Product Storage

• Plant Protection Product Handling

• Empty Plant Protection Product Containers

• Obsolete Plant Protection Products

• Application of Substances Other than Fertilizer and Plant Protection Products

Basic Control Points

• Choice of crop protection products

• Mixing of crop protection products

•   Application of crop protection products

• Safety and Welfare of Authorized Worker/s during Application

• Storage of crop protection products

• Disposal of crop protection products and other contaminated wastes

• Record keeping

Basic Control Points

• Proper use and handling of pesticides and other hazardous chemicals

- Provision of training

- Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)

- Maintaition of a central storage area for pesticides and other hazardous chemicals

- Handling of empty pesticide containers and equipment

• Choice of pesticides used

- Establishment and Update of a list of the pesticides that are used on Fairtrade crops

-  No useage of any of the materials onFairtrade International Prohibited Materials List (Red List)

• see also above "Pest management"

Basic Control Points

• When the measures described above under "Pest Management" are not sufficient, pest, disease and weed management products that are prepared on the farm from local plants, animals and micro-organisms, or substances permitted under the IFOAM Appendix 3, may be used, provided that they do not jeopardize the ecosystem or the

quality of organic products.

• Physical methods for pest, disease and weed management are permitted, including the application of heat.


Basic Control Points

• Routinely verification and calibration of equipment sensitive to food safety and the environment (e.g. fertilizer spreaders, plant protection product sprayers, irrigation systems, equipment used for weighing and temperature control)

Basic Control Points

• Equipment maintenance used for the fertilizer application

• Maintenance and storage of equipment used for pestice application


Basic Control Points

• All equipment from conventional farming systems shall be thoroughly cleaned of potentially contaminating materials before being used on organically managed areas.


Fruits and Vegetables (Processing and Handling)



Basic Control Points

• Quality of Water Used for Plant Protection Product Application

• Application of Organic Fertilizer

• Pre-Harvest Check

Basic Control Points

• Pre-Harvest check


Basic Principles

• All relevant measures are taken to ensure that organic soil and organic products are protected from contamination.

Basic Control Points

• monitoring of crop, soil, water, inputs for risks of contamination by prohibited substances and environmental contaminants.

• Employment of  measures including barriers and buffer zones to avoid potential contamination and limit contaminants in organic products.


Basic Control Points

• General Requirements

- Hygiene procedure for the harvest and pre-farm gate transport process

- Instructions and procedures for handling produce to avoid contamination of the product

- Cleaning and maintation of containers, tools and vehicles used for harvesting and transportation

- Access to clean hand washing equipment and access to clean toilets for harvest workers

• Final Produce Packing at Point of Harvest (Applicable when during harvest and/or final packing, the last human contact with product takes place in-field)

- Harvesting process hygiene procedure and product protection from contamination

Basic Control Points

• Harvesting technique

• Hygiene

• Packaging

• Pre-transport

• Transport

Basic Control Points

• Wild harvesting of Fairtrade products from uncultivated areas must assure the sustainability and survivability of the collected species in its native habitat

Basic Control Points

• Wild harvested products shall only be derived from a sustainable growing environment.

• Products shall not be harvested at a rate that exceeds the sustainable yield of the ecosystem, or threaten the existence of plant, fungal or animal species, including those not directly exploited.

• The collection or harvest area shall be at an appropriate distance from conventional farming or other pollution sources in order to avoid contamination.

Produce Handling

Basic Control Points

• Principles of Hygiene

• Personal Hygiene

• Sanitary Facilities

• Packing and Storage areas

• Quality Control

• Pest Control

• Post-Harvest Washing

Basic Control Points

• Post-harvest washing

• Postharvest treatment

•   Cooling system of fresh fruits and vegetables

• Off-farm facility for produce handling and/or storage

• Personal hygiene and farm sanitation

• Equipment, containers and materials

• Buildings and Structures

• Animals, Pest and Disease Control

Basic Control Points

• List of sources of water used for irrigating and processing Fairtrade crops

• Handling waste water from central processing facilities in a manner that does not have a negative impact on water quality, soil fertility or food safety

Basic Principles

• Organic processing and handling provides consumers with nutritious, high quality supplies of organic products and organic farmers with a market without compromise to the organic integrity of their products.

•   Organic processing and handling provides the consumer with high quality supplies of organic products without compromise to the integrity of the products and protects the environment.

•   Organic products are protected from pests and diseases by the use of good manufacturing practices that include proper cleaning, sanitation and hygiene, without the use of chemical pest control treatments or irradiation.

•   Organic product packaging has minimal adverse impacts on the product and on the environment.

•   Organic products are safe, of high quality, and free of substances used to clean, disinfect, and sanitize the processing facilities.

Basic Control Points

• The handler or processor shall take all necessary measures to prevent organic products from being contaminated by pollutants and contaminants, including the cleaning, decontamination, or if necessary disinfection of facilities and equipment.

• The handler or processor shall identify and minimize risks of environmental pollution resulting from their activity.

• Processors shall respect the principles of good manufacturing practices. This shall include maintaining appropriate procedures based on identification of critical processing steps.

• Techniques used to process organic products shall be biological, physical, and mechanical in nature. Any additives, processing aids, or other material that reacts chemically with organic products or modifies it must be documented and shall be used in accordance with noted restrictions.

Social Justice/Labour Conditions


This section intends to ensure good working conditions for workers. Fairtrade International regards the core ILO conventions as the main reference for good working conditions.

Workers are waged employees, whether they are permanent or temporary, migrant or local, subcontracted or directly employed. Workers include all hired personnel whether they work in the field, in processing sites, or in administration. Senior managers and other professionals are not considered workers.

Social justice and social rights are an integral part of organic agriculture and processing.

Operators shall have and enforce a policy on social justice. This policy shall comply with the minimum national requirements and with all ILO conventions relating to labor welfare and the UN Charter of Rights for Children. This policy shall ensure that all permanent employees and their families shall have access to potable water, food, housing.

Freedom from discrimination


Basic Principles

• This section intends to prevent discrimination against workers based on the content of ILO Convention 111 on Discrimination. The Convention defines discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation” (Article 1). Discrimination is making an unfair distinction in the treatment of one person over another on grounds that are not related to ability or merit.

•   This section is applicable to all workers employed byby the members of the organization

Basic Control Points

• No discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, age, HIV/AIDS status,

religion, political opinion, membership of unions or other workers’ representative bodies, national extraction or social origin in recruitment, promotion, access to training, remuneration, allocation of work, termination of employment, retirement or other activities.

• No test for pregnancy, HIV or genetic disorders durin the recruitment of workers

• No corporal punishment, or mental or physical coercion or verbal abuse

•   No behaviour, including gestures, language, and physical contact, that is sexually intimidating, abusive or exploitative

Basic Control Points

• Operators shall provide their employees and contractors equal opportunity and treatment, and shall not act in a discriminatory way.

Freedom of labour


Basic Principles

• This section intends to prevent forced or bonded labour based on ILO Conventions 29 and 105 on Forced Labour. “Forced or compulsory labour shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily” (Article 2)

•   This section is applicable to all workers employed byby the members of the organization

Basic Control Points

• Prohibition of forced labour, including bonded or involuntary prison labour

• Spouses must have the right to work elsewhere

Basic Control Points

• Prohibition of forced or involuntary labor.

Child labour and child protection


Basic Control Points

• Employment of workers  with minimum age of 18 years

Basic Principles

• This section intends to prevent labour that is damaging to children based on ILO Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour addressing “work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children” and on ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Age. “The minimum age specified in pursuance of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling and, in any case, shall not be less than 15 years”

•   This section is applicable to all workers employed byby the members of the organization

Basic Control Points

• No employment children below the age of 15.

• children below 15 years of age are allowed to help members on their farms, but under strict conditions

• No submission of workers less than 18 years of age to any type of work which, by its nature or the circumstances under

which it is carried out, is likely to jeopardize their health, safety or morals and their school attendance

Basic Control Points

• Operators shall not hire child labor.

Freedom of association and collective bargaining


Basic Principles

• This section intends to protect workers against discrimination when defending their rights to organize and to negotiate collectively based on ILO Convention 87 on Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize, ILO Convention 98 on the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining and ILO Recommendation 143 on Workers’ Representatives. “Workers and employers, without distinction whatsoever, shall have the right to establish and, subject only to the rules of the organization concerned, to join organizations of their own choosing without previous authorisation. Workers’ and employers’ organizations shall have the right to draw up their constitutions and rules, to elect their representatives in full freedom, to organize their administration and activities and to formulate their programmes.”

•  This section is only applicable to members who employ a significant number of workers

Basic Control Points

• Freedom of all workers to join a workers’ organization of their own choosing, and that workers are free to participate in group negotiations regarding their working conditions

• Workers right to form trade unions

• No discrimination against workers and their representatives for organizing, joining (or not) a workers’ organization, or for participating in the legal activities of the workers’ organization

Basic Control Points

• Employees and contractors of organic operations shall have the freedom to associate, to organize and to bargain collectively.

Conditions of employment


Basic Control Points

• Workers welfare

• Basic services and facilities in case of living quarters

Basic Principles

• This section intends to provide for good practices regarding the payment of workers and their conditions of employment based on ILO Convention 100 on Equal Remuneration and on ILO Convention 110 on Conditions of Employment of Workers

•   This section is only applicable to members who employ a significant number of workers

Basic Control Points

• Appropriate and regular payments

• Social benefits

• Contract of employment

Basic Control Points

• Operators shall provide written terms and conditions of employment to both permanent and temporary employees.

Occupational health and safety

Basic Principles

• People are key to the safe and efficient operation of any farm. Farm staff and contractors as well as producers themselves stand for the quality of the produce and for environmental protection. Education and training will help progress towards sustainability and build on social capital. This section is intended to ensure safe practices in the work place and that all workers both understand, and are competent to perform their duties; are provided with proper equipment to allow them to work safely; and that, in the event of accidents, can obtain proper and timely assistance.

Basic Control Points

• Health and Safety

• Hygiene

• Training

• Hazards and First Aid

• Protective Clothing/Equioment

• Worker welfare

Basic Control Points

• Training

• Health and Safety

•   Hygiene

Basic Principles

• This section intends to prevent work-related accidents by minimizing hazards in the work place. It is based on ILO Convention 155 on Occupational Safety and Health.

•   This section is only applicable to members who employ a significant number of workers

Basic Control Points

• Safe work processes, workplaces, machinery and equipment on the production site

• No potentially hazardous work for children under the age of 18 years, pregnant or nursing women, mentally handicapped people, people with chronic, hepatic or renal diseases and people with respiratory diseases

• Accessible first aid boxes and equipment as well as first aid trainings

• Provision of clean drinking water and clean toilets with hand washing facilities close by for workers, and clean showers for workers who handle pesticides

• Provision of training to workers who carry out hazardous work

• Display all information, safety instructions, re-entry intervals and hygiene recommendations

• Provision and use of personal protective equipment

• Improvement of improve health and safety conditions

Basic Control Points

• Workers shall be provided with adequate protection from noise, dust, sunlight and exposure to chemicals in all production and processing operations.